Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
This is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer:
There are 2 varieties of transducers, these are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Sensor is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most effective types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied to the structure, it creates an electric powered charge and, when an electric powered field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism may be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and therefore can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be according to piezoelectrics. In this case, the Micro Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while reducing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually employed to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used along with piezo actuators to offer position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electricity and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when innovative performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Due to their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to provide the controller the proper information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the correct amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it will cause. In case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system using a counter mass could be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out and the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is often utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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